Carpet Glossary

Carpet Glossary includes the terms related to Carpets and kilims:

A

Abrash

  • A change in the color of a rug due to differences in the wool or dye batch. The color change runs across the rug and is most likely to occur at the top.            

B

Boteh                

  • A pear-shaped figure often used in Oriental rug designs, characteristic of the paisley pattern. The botch may represent a leaf, bush or a pine cone.  

C

Cochineal       

  • Deep red dye obtained from the dried bodies of a type of insect.   

Combing          

  • Process for preparing wool in the same direction, before they are spun. 

D

Do-zar             

  • A Persian name used to describe approximately a 150cm x 210cm size carpet. 

E

Edge Finish    

  • Both edges of a woven rug are covered with overcast (a simple running stitch) or selvedge (finished with a woven band) in order to reinforce the edges, as they are particularly susceptible to wear.

F

Flat Weave     

  • Describes a rug that has a flat pile which includes Dhurrie, Kilim and Soumak.

Foundation     

  • The warp and weft are the basis/foundation of a rug. 

Fringe             

  • Warps extending from the ends of a rug which are treated in several ways to prevent the wefts and knots from unraveling.

G

Garden Design

  • Panel designs throughout the field woven with floral motifs.                    

Gereh             

  • Persian name for knot

Ghali                  

  • A Persian name used to describe approximately a 200cm x 300cm (small size) or 270 x 370 (medium size) or 300 x 400 (large size) carpets. 

Ghiordes Knot

  • See Turkish knot

Gul                    

  • A medallion either octagonal or angular in shape, used in Turkmen designs. It is often repeated to form an all-over pattern in the field.    

H

Herati                

  • A fish pattern repeating throughout the field of a rug

I

Indigo

  • A native plant of southern Asia that was traded in powder form. Different blue shaded dyes from sky-blue to black obtained from the leaves of this plant

J

Jufti Knot

  • A false knotting technique that simplifies the knot for the weaver.  

K

Kalleghi            

  • Persian name for a wide runner with approximate size of 120 (to 180 cm) x 250 (to 500 cm)

Kenareh           

  • Persian name for a long runner with approximate size of 70 (to 110 cm) x 280 (to 1600 cm)

Kharak              

  • Persian name for a short runner with approximate size of 70 cm x 180 cm

Khersak            

  • Coarse carpet with 36,000-50,000 knots/square meter

Khorjeen         

  • Double bag which is slung over the shoulder as a small pannier for vegetables and foodstuff. 

Kilim                  

  • A flat woven rug or rug without a knotted pile. 

Kilim Baft         

  • The first two centimeters of carpet woven as ordinary textile is called “Kilim-baft”

Knot                 

  • A knot is formed when wool, cotton or silk yarn is looped around the warp threads. There are different procedures for knotting and each knot type has a name, for example there is a Turkish/Ghiordes knot & a Persian/Senneh knot.

Knots Per Square Inch 

  • Number of knots per square inch rates the knot quality.

Kork                   

  • The very finest quality wool obtained from the shoulder and flanks of shearing lambs.                  

L

Loom                 

  • Normally a wood structure that the carpet is woven on. 

M

Madder

  • A wild perennial, found from Asia /minor to China. It is the most common natural source of red dyes.

Medallion        

  • The large enclosed portion of a design, usually in the center. Typical shapes are diamonds, octagons and hexagons.   

Musel               

  • A Persian name used to describe medium / small rugs, with dimensions of approximately 100 cm x 200 cm.

P

Padari               

  • See poshti

Pardeh             

  • A Persian name used to describe approximately a 150cm x 250cm size carpet. 

Persian Knot  

  • Looped around one thread with only a half-turn around the other thread.

Pile                     

  • The nap of the rug or the tufts remaining after the knotted yarns is clipped.  

Plain Weave

  • This is straightforward interlacing of the warp and weft on the loom.

Poshti               

  • A Persian name used to describe very small rugs, with dimensions of approximately 60 cm x 90 cm .

Prayer Rug      

  • A rug with a representation of mosque or arched prayer area. Columns may be shown supporting the arch with a lamp hanging from the arch’s apex.   

S

Saffron            

  • Natural dye used to obtain a yellow color.

Sajadeh            

  • See Do-zar

Selvedge         

  • The area between the edge of a rug and the fringe. The selvedge is the same material used to form the warp and weft. A design can be added to the selvedge to enhance the look of a rug.

Senneh Knot  

  •  See Persian knot

Sofreh              

  • Small runner largely woven by Kurdish and Balouch tribes and used as a ground cloth during meals. 

Soumak            

  • The term Soumak is said to have derived from the Caucasian town Shemakha, where very fine brocade weft-warped kilims have been woven for centuries. Soumak weave is a technique that produces a herringbone effect.  

T

Turkish Knot  

  • The knot is formed by looping the pile yarn across two warp strands and then drawing each end back through the inside of both the warps.

W

Warp                 

  • Beginning part of a rug where wool, cotton or silk strands are attached to a loom vertically, following the length of a rug.

Weft                

  • Wool, cotton or silk strands inserted horizontally over and under the warp forming the foundation of the rug.  

Z

Zar-O-Charak 

  • A Persian name used to describe small rugs, with dimensions of approximately 80cm x 130 cm.

Zar-O-Nim       

  • A Persian name used to describe small rugs, with dimensions of approximately 100cm x 150 cm.
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